Discussion Papers Series 2005-2010

DP 2010-22 E-government Initiatives of Four Philippine Cities

Gabrielle Iglesias

This study intends to provide a snapshot of the city government (in a developing country) as it uses information and communication technology (ICT) to transform its public service delivery and promote good urban governance. The volume of work related to services provided by local governments could be made more efficient, effective, transparent, accountable and equitable using relevant technologies. In the Philippines, a Government Information Systems Plan (GISP) was approved and adopted as framework for all computerization efforts of key services and operations. This study used as case study samples four city governments (Caloocan, Muntinlupa, Antipolo, and Tagaytay) known to actively use ICT applications to determine: (1) the level of use of ICT, and (2) how their computerization efforts facilitate good urban governance. The e-governance framework used for this study has a phased ICT utilization wherein a government agency must first use ICT to improve its internal operations (e-administration), then its public service delivery (egovernment), before finally being able to use ICT to improve its relationship with its constituents (e-governance).

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2010/pidsdps1022.pdf


DP 2009-13 Revisiting Sectoral Liberalization: An Alternative to the FTAAP? Implications on the Philippines

George Manzano and Myrene Bedaño

This paper develops a modality of liberalization for APEC, based on a sectoral level, as an alternative to the politically‐sensitive Free Trade Area of the Asia‐Pacific (FTAAP). This model, originally developed by Wonnacott (1994), argues for the liberalization of sectors on an MFN basis, where APEC members are principal suppliers.  The main advantage of this option is that it skirts the free rider problem that usually afflicts MFN liberalization.   While this approach would benefit APEC as a group, it impacts different members differently.  The paper examines the implications of such liberalization modality on the offensive and defensive interests of the Philippines in APEC.     

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2009/pidsdps0913.pdf


DP 2008-20 Impacts of the Free Trade Area of the Pacific (FTAAP) on Production, Consumption, and Trade of the Philippines

U-Primo E. Rodriguez

This paper examines the economy-wide impacts of a Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific (FTAAP) on the Philippine economy. In particular, it uses an applied general equilibrium model to determine the effects of alternative scenarios on aggregate and sectoral outputs, consumption, and international trade. The paper also compares the FTAAP to reforms which are confined to the ASEAN plus 3 and to a broader set of tariff changes that covers all the trading partners of the Philippines.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2008/pidsdps0820.pdf


DP 2006-12 Intellectual Property Rights: Talking Points for RP-US FTA Negotiations

Delia S. Tantuico and Errol Wilfred Zshornack

Intellectual property rights – copyrights, trademarks, patents, trade secrets, and related rights –have become increasingly important with the advent of increased international trade, global and knowledge-based economy and fast developing technology. A strong intellectual property rights regime is necessary in order to attract foreign trade and direct investments. For this reason, the protection of intellectual property rights has become an important negotiating item in all FTAs which the United States has entered into. In view of the proposed RP-US FTA negotiations, this paper seeks to determine whether the existing intellectual property regime in the Philippines provides adequate and sufficient legal protection of intellectual property rights.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0612.pdf


DP 2006-11 Implications of an RP-US FTA on the Philippine Financial Services Industry and the Philippine Economy

Leila Calderon-Kabigting and Liberty S. Patiu

The paper discusses financial liberalization in the context of a proposed RP-US FTA. It discusses the state of the financial industry, in general, and also reviewed the USChile and US-Singapore FTAs to be able to arrive at the proposed provisions for the RPUS FTA. It also tackles the reforms that have to be undertaken in order to make the Philippine Financial Services Industry globally competitive and be more prepared to embrace the opportunities of an FTA with the US.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0611.pdf


DP 2006-10 Expanding RP-US Linkages in Business Process Outsourcing

Ceferino S. Rodolfo

The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector has experienced unprecedented global growth. This has greatly benefited the Philippines, where BPO has five main segments: call centers, medical transcription, animation, software development, and shared services. High population level, cultural affinity with the major markets, and advanced telecoms infrastructure are the key advantages of the Philippines. Political stability, on the other hand, is its main weakness.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0610.pdf


DP 2006-08 Assessment of Competitiveness and Logistics Infrastructure of the Philippine Garments Industry

Emilio T. Antonio Jr. and Ma. Cherry Lyn S. Rodolfo

The paper discusses the state of the Philippine Garments Industry, with specific focus on its competitiveness and logistics infrastructure, and how the industry can make use of the prospective Free Trade Agreement with the US. With the signing of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing on January 1, 2005 which called for the removal of all quotas over a 10-year phase-out period, textiles and apparels had been integrated into the mainstream of trade. The question, therefore, is how the Philippines should position itself into this new era of trade in garments. For the Philippines to compete, the industry needs to move up in the value chain, significantly improve its supply chain and seek preferential access to the US. Consolidation of resources among firms and investments generation for productivity enhancement are greatly needed. An FTA can likely increase the Philippines’ competitiveness in the US market but the long-term solutions should be focused on industrial upgrading. Logistics must be improved and investments on physical and human capital must be made to improve the clustering programs between garments producers and textile firms.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0608.pdf


DP 2006-07 Issues and Prospects on the Movement of Natural Persons and Human Capital Development in the Philippine-American Economic Relations

Tereso S. Tullao Jr. and Michael Angelo A. Cortez

The United States of America is the top trading partner of the Philippines and also the top destination of highly skilled and professional Filipino workers. This paper explores the possibility of a free trade agreement (FTA) that covers the asymmetries of the two countries in labor, services and human resources development, particularly educational services. The existing FTAs of the U.S. were examined to seek for provisions the Philippines may adopt for a freer movement of natural persons. However, there are barriers inherent in the U.S. immigration and recent U.S. Congressional pronouncements to uphold the primacy of their immigration policy, thus, no more similar liberal agreements could be entered into. Issues on the movement of workers, particularly mutual recognition, accreditation, taxation and the refund of social security contributions were raised. For the educational sector, the issue of public subsidy and national treatment of foreign service providers were also brought up to clarify the objective of bringing access to students.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0607.pdf


DP 2006-06 The Impact of a Philippine-US FTA: The Case of Philippine Agriculture

U-Primo E. Rodriguez and Liborio S. Cabanilla

The paper examines the effect of an RP-US FTA in the Philippine agricultural sector. Using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) Model, it analyzes the impact of the removal of tariffs on imports from the US on the various commodities in agriculture and food processing. The simulation results suggest that most of the commodities in these sectors experience gains in output and employment following the removal of Philippine tariffs on its imports from the U.S. It also shows that the benefits of agriculture and food processing from the FTA are larger with a comprehensive removal of tariffs.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0606.pdf


DP 2006-05 Agricultural Trade Between the Philippines and the US: Status, Issues and Prospects

Liborio S. Cabanilla

The paper describes the environment under which RP-US Agricultural trade currently operates. It also highlights key issues affecting current trade flows between the Philippines and the US, and provides background information vital for future bilateral agricultural negotiations with the U.S. Further to this, it shows that two major factors will determine the prospective net effects of a RP-US FTA on Philippine agriculture. First, the effects on exports will depend on the extent of US reduction of NTBs, particularly on mangoes, carrageenan, and canned tuna. Second, Philippine imports from the US will depend on its willingness to reconsider position, particularly on rice and corn. On this count, it must be noted that rice is an important wage good, and corn is a key livestock feed ingredient. Moreover, the advent of an FTA with the US should be a good reason to get Philippine agriculture better organized, in terms of policy and institutional support.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0605.pdf


DP 2006-04 The Politico-Strategic Dimension of the US Proposal for a Free Trade Agreement with the Philippines

Renato Cruz de Castro

This research paper examines the politico-strategic motivations of the Bush Administration’s effort to foster Free Trade Agreements to a number of countries, including the Philippines. It argues that FTAs are being used by the U.S. as means of advancing the trade interest of American business, as well as ensuring its leadership in the global political economy. The article observes that the current attempt of the Bush Administration to push for FTAs is driven by political dynamics. Among these are the competition between the Congress and the White House, the U.S. strategy in the war on terror, pressuring the E.U to another round of trade liberalization negotiations, and ensuring American access to the East Asian regional economy.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2006/pidsdps0604.pdf


DP 2005-09 Globalization, Redemocratization and the Philippine Bureaucracy

Mirshariff Tillah

The increasing demands and expectations placed upon the Philippine bureaucracy by a redemocratizing society are further amplified by the strengthening of global institutional pressures emanating from organizations such as the World Trade Organization and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. These forces converge to advocate a minimal and more effective government through downsizing, privatization, deregulation, decentralization, harnessing civil society and private sector capacities, empowering citizens, and adopting a customer orientation. These have led to significant changes in the very nature and role of the civil service, how it is managed, and the means by which administrative reform can be achieved. This study thus looks into the impact of globalization on the Philippine bureaucracy in a redemocratizing context. In order to observe these changes, three agencies have been selected as case studies – the Departments of Trade and Industry, Agriculture, and Foreign Affairs.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2005/pidsdps0509.pdf


DP 2005-08 Effect of Global Economic Liberalization on Manufacturing Firms in Muslim Areas in the Philippines

Eugenio J. Manulat Jr.

The study aimed at determining the effects of global economic liberalization on manufacturing industries in Muslim areas in the Philippines. A total of 103 respondents/ manufacturers of the different manufacturing firms, who were either indirectly or directly involved in export or import business were the targets for the study. Majority of the respondents were aware of the liberalization process taking place and adjustments were taken by most manufacturing industries in the Muslim areas in the Philippines to counteract the negative effects of globalization. But further intervention should be made to enhance and support the manufacturing industries in the Muslim areas. Among them are resolution of the peace and order situation, credit facilitation, technical assistance, market access abroad, tax reduction and lower tariffs, and infrastructure facilities.

Link: https://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2005/pidsdps0508.pdf