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Russia

Trade

As of 2016, Russia's export continued to decline after peaking at US$ 527.3 billion in 2013, and was already in its lowest in 10 years at US$ 285.5 billion. Imports, however, seemed to be stabilizing since its decline in 2014. Exports registered at US$ 182.3 billion in 2016, very insignificantly lower than the previous year.

The country exported a total of 4,350 products to 199 destinations. Fuels (47.2 percent) comprised almost half of the total exports. Metals (10.2 percent) and miscellaneous products (16.6 percent) had relatively high contributions. Other exports include chemicals (4.9 percent), machineries and electronics (3.8 percent), stone and glass (3.5 percent), word (3.5 percent), vegetable (3.3 percent), plastic or rubber (1.7 percent), and food products (1.5 percent). Meanwhile, Russia imported 4,421 products from 220 countries. Most of these were machineries and electronics (31.2 percent). Chemical (12.7 percent) and transportation (9.9 percent) imports, and miscellaneous (8.9 percent) were relatively significant. The rest were metals (6.3 percent), vegetable (5.8 percent), plastic or rubber (5.7 percent), food products (4.7 percent), and textiles and clothing (4.6 percent).

In terms of stages of processing, Russia's exports were mainly raw materials (36.0 percent), consumer goods (22.6 percent), and intermediate goods (20.6 percent). Capital goods (5.0 percent) contributed very small portion of the exports. On imports, capital goods (38.1 percent) and consumer goods (33.5 percent) dominated, while a relatively notable portion was composed of intermediate goods (16.3 percent). Raw materials (8.5percent) had relatively small contribution to total imports.

Russian service imports amounted to US$ 74.4 billion in 2016, while service exports totaled to US$ 50.5 percent. Imports of goods and services contributed to 20.6 percent of the GDP, while exports contributed to 25.7 percent.

Russian export markets include Netherlands (10.3 percent), China (9.8 percent), Germany (7.5 percent), Belarus (4.9 percent) and Turkey (4.8 percent). Imports sources, on the other hand, include China (20.9 percent), Germany (10.7 percent), USA (6.1 percent), Belarus (5.2 percent), and France (4.7 percent).

Investment

Russian FDI inflows dropped from US$ 37.2 billion in 2016 to US$ 25.3 billion in 2017. The FDI stock, however, increased from US$ 393.9 billion to US$ 446.6 billion in the same period.

Cyprus was the largest source of FDI, contributing about 32.7 percent. Other major investors include Luxembourg (10.1 percent), Netherlands (8.8 percent), Bermuda (5.9 percent), Ireland (5.9 percent), Bahamas (4.8 percent), UK (3.7 percent), and Germany (3.5 percent).

Mining and quarrying and manufacturing industry were the most invested sector, receiving about 21.4 percent and 20.6 percent of the total FDI. Trade, repair of motor vehicles (15.5 percent) and financial activities and insurance (14.0 percent), as well as real estate sector (6.5 percent) were also among the highest recipients of FDI.

References:

https://wits.worldbank.org/countrysnapshot/en/RUS (Accessed on 30 October 2018)

https://en.portal.santandertrade.com/establish-overseas/russia/foreign-investment (Accessed on 30 October 2018)

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